Table of Authorities

American Booksellers, Inc. v. Hudnut, 771 F.2d 323 (7th Cir. 1985), aff'd 106 S.Ct. 1172 (1986) (civil-rights antipornography law found to violate First Amendment)

Attorney General's Commission on Pornography, Final Report (July, 1986) (evidence on harm of pornography reviewed and recommendations for action made)

Bogdanovich, P., The Killing of the Unicorn: Dorothy Stratten 1960-1980 (New York: William Morrow, 1984)

Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954) and 349 U.S. 294 (1955) (racial segregation in schools found unconstitutional; ordered integrated)

Civil Rights Act of 1964 (sex and race discrimination prohibited)

Dred Scott v. Sanford, 60 U.S. (19 How.) 393 (1856) (slavery held constitutional)

Dworkin, A., "Against the Male Flood: Censorship, Pornography, and Equality," 9 Harvard Women's Law Journal 1 (1985) (subordination discussed in context of Ordinance)

First Amendment to the United States Constitution (guarantees "freedom of speech and of the press" from restriction by government; interpreted to protect freedom of association)

Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (guarantees "equal protection of the laws")

Goldstein and Milky Way Productions, Inc. v. Frances Patai and Women Against Pornography, Complaint, Supreme Court of the State of New York (Oct. 10, 1984) (pornographer sues feminists for libel)

Lovelace, L. and M. McGrady, Ordeal (Secaucus, N.J.: Citadel, 1980) (coercion into pornography documented)

Malamuth, N. and E. Donnerstein (eds.), Pornography and Sexual Aggression (New York: Academic Press, 1985) (laboratory evidence on connection between pornography and sexual aggression discussed)

Melendy v. Clinton, et al, Civ. Action No. 85-306, Cmnwlth. Mass. Supreme Judicial Court (Sept. 27, 1985) (citizen successfully sues Cambridge City Council to place Ordinance
on ballot)

Miller v. United States, 413 U.S. 15 (1973) (obscenity defined, held "not speech," allowed criminalized against claim of First Amendment protection)

New York v. Ferber, 458 U.S. 747 (1982) (child pornography defined as child abuse and allowed criminalized against claim of First Amendment protection)

Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (women granted right to vote)

Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896) (segregation found constitutional)

Playboy Enterprises, Inc. v. Meese, 639 F.Supp. 581 (D.D.C. 1986) (Playboy censors government for inquiry by letter)

Public Hearings on Ordinances to Add Pornography as Discrimination Against Women, Committee on Government Operations, City Council, Minneapolis, Minn. (Dec. 12-13, 1983) (harms of pornography documented)

Russell, D., "Pornography and Rape: A Causal Model," 9 Political Psychology 41 (March, 1988) (evidence supports causal relation between pornography and sexual abuse)

Reed v. Reed, 404 U.S. 71 (1971) (first case to find statute that discriminated against women violated Fourteenth Amendment; statute preferred men over women as estate administrators)

Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, 438 U.S. 265 (1978) (serious equality efforts in medical school admissions labeled reverse discrimination)

Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973) (abortion decriminalized as privacy right)

Stanley v. Georgia, 394 U.S. 557 (1969) (possession of obscenity in the home protected by right to privacy)

Zillman, D., Connections between Sex and Aggression (Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1984) (laboratory studies on connection between sexually explicit materials and aggressive attitudes and behaviors against women discussed)